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Research-Based Frameworks

The following articles are just a sample of the research that we consider in the development of our products and include in our writing.  We continue to develop and write about conceptual frameworks based on our clinical experience, and grounded in the literature.


ILAUGH Model of Social Thinking

The  ILAUGH  Model  of  Social  Thinking  is  a  core  conceptual framework  underlying  most,  if  not  all,  of  our  work.  ILAUGH  is  an  acronym representing what  the  literature  tells us  about  the  types of  challenges  common  to  individuals with  social  learning  issues.    The research supporting each part of this model are too extensive to list here but can be found in Why Teach Social Thinking as well as The Social Thinking Social Learning Tree article.

I - Initiation

The collateral effects of joint attention training on social initiations, positive affect, imitation and spontaneous speech for young children with autism.

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Measuring changes in social behavior during a social skills intervention for higher-functioning children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder.

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Social skills interventions for children with Asperger Syndrome or High Functioning Autism: A review and recommendations.

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L - Listening with Eyes and Brain

Behavioral assessment of joint attention: A methodological report.

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Biological approaches to the study of social engagement.

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Joint attention and early social communication: Implications for research on intervention with autism.

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Brief report: Social and communicative abilities and disabilities in higher functioning individuals with Autism and Asperger Syndrome.

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A - Abstract and Inferential
U - Understanding Perspective

Putting theory of mind in its place: Psychological explanations of the socio-emotional-communicative impairments in autistic spectrum disorder.

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The social brain: Allowing humans to boldly go where no other species has been.

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Theory of mind and Autism: a fifteen year review. In S. Baron-Cohen, H. Tager-Flusberg. and D. Cohen (Eds.). New York: Oxford University Press.

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Theory of Mind in adults with HFA and Asperger Syndrome.

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G - Gestalt or Getting the Big Picture

Increasing independence in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A review of three focused interventions.

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The weak coherence account: Detail focused cognitive style in Autism Spectrum Disorders.

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A comparison of central coherence skills between adolescents and an intellectual disability with and without comorbid autism spectrum disorder.

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H - Human Relationships & Humor

Engaging Autism: The Floortime Approach to helping children relate, communicate and think. Jackson, TN: Perseus Books.

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Use of context in pragmatic language comprehension by children with Asperger Syndrome or High-Functioning Autism.

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The SCERTS™ Model. A comprehensive educational approach for children with autism spectrum disorders. Volume II Program Planning and Intervention. Maryland: Brookes Publishing.

Here are a few of the other research based concepts and frameworks representing the foundation for the Social Thinking methodology. We continue to read the latest literature within each of these areas and modify, expand, and generate new articles based on these areas.  This list is not meant to be exhaustive by any means, but rather a resource for you!   

Social Emotional Learning

Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (CASEL). 2005.

Safe and sound: An educational leaders guide to evidence-based social and emotional learning (SEL) programs. Chicago.
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Where does social-emotional well-being fit into the school curriculum?

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Executive function and the promotion of social-emotional competence.

Executive function, behavioral self-regulation, and social-emotional competence.

The SCERTS model: Enhancing communication and socioemotional abilities of children with autism spectrum disorders. Brookes, Baltimore.

The Positive Impact of Social and Emotional Learning for Kindergarten to Eighth-Grade Students: Findings From Three Scientific Reviews. Technical Report.

Executive Functioning

Impact of executive functioning and symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder on children's peer relations and school performance.

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Executive Function deficits in autism spectrum disorders and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Examining profiles across domains and ages.

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Evaluating the theory of executive dysfunction in autism.

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Language, social, and executive functions in high functioning autism.

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Individual differences in executive function and central coherence predict developmental changes in theory of mind in autism.

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Homework and beyond!! Teaching organizational skills to individuals with ASD.

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Theory of Mind

Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

Language and theory of mind: What are the developmental relationships.

Teaching theory of mind: A new approach to social skills training for individuals with high-functioning autism.

Seminal Source

Theory of own mind in autism: Evidence of a specific deficit in self awareness.

Developmental relationships between language and theory of mind.

Brief Report: A theory-of-mind Social-cognition training program for school-aged children with pervasive Developmental disorders: An open study of its effectiveness.

Metacognition, Theory of Mind, and Self-Control: The Relevance of High-Level Cognitive Processes in Development, Neuroscience, and Education

Self Regulation

Challenges in Emotional Regulation in Asperger Syndrome and High-functioning Autism

Emotion regulation in Asperger's syndrome and high-functioning autism.

Self-regulation interventions for children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

How do different aspects of self-regulation predict successful adaptation to school?

Social Cognition

Atypical development of spontaneous social cognition in autism spectrum disorders.

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Social-cognitive development in the first year.

Development of the adolescent brain: implications for executive function and social cognition.

Brief Report: Atypical Social Cognition and Social Behaviours in Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Different Way of Processing Rather than an Impairment

Social Skills

Review of Social Skills Training Groups for Youth with Asperger Syndrome and High Functioning Autism.

Brief Report: Group Social-multimodal Intervention for HFASD.

Social Skill Development in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Review of Intervention Research.

Examining the Effectiveness of An Outpatient Clinic--based Social Skills Group for High-functioning Children with Autism.

Social Skills Training for Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome and High-Functioning Autism.

Social skills interventions for children with asperger’s syndrome or high-functioning autism: A review and recommendations.

Cognitive Behavior Therapy

Modifications of cognitive-behavioral therapy for children and adolescents with high-functioning ASD and their common difficulties

Evidence-Based Interventions for Autism Spectrum Disorders

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CBT and Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Comprehensive Literature Review

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Development of a cognitive-behavioral intervention program to treat anxiety and social deficits in teens with high-functioning autism.

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Cognitive-behavioral therapy.

PBIS/RTI

Common Core State Standards